Thursday, September 21, 2017

John Sevier: War Hawk, Part Two

The continuation of our two part blog series on the role of John Sevier during the War of 1812 and the twilight of his career. Please join us this Saturday, September 23rd as we remember the first governor of Tennessee and Revolutionary War hero. 

Part II
By the time President Madison signed the declaration of war against the United Kingdom in June of 1812, John Sevier and most of his fellow Democratic-Republicans had been suing for war for many months.  In a letter to Tennessee governor Willie Blount, which was published in the Knoxville Gazette on July 13th, 1812, Sevier writes that Congress has finally approved the war bill.  He had been “well assured” that the bill would pass in the House, but the course of the Senate had been unclear.  His personal vendetta against Native Americans is plain; about the Creek Nation he writes that “fire and sword must be carried into that country before those wretches will be reduced to reason or become peaceable neighbors, there can be no reliance or trust placed in them…”, and adds that he hopes the U.S. will take Florida from the Spanish.[i]
            Madison had initially offered a position of high command in the army to Sevier, who had declined on the grounds that he was too old.  Instead, the president made him chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs.[ii]  Sevier continued to attend the House during the day and make his rounds around the capitol in the evenings & on weekends: Mrs. Madison’s “levee” on July 1st, a visit with the French ambassador on July 3rd, and a 4th of July celebration, attended by all members of the president’s cabinet, at Samuel Ringgold’s residence.  The first session of the twelfth Congress ended on July 6th, and Sevier set out for home two days later.[iii]
Sevier returned to Washington on October 28th, 1812, and promptly called on the president on the 30th, three days before the beginning of the second congressional session.  In late 1812 he began lodging at Mrs. Suter’s boardinghouse, which was located at the corner of 15th Street & F Street, one block east of the White House and directly across the street from the Treasury building. Regarded as a Washington institution, the boarding house & restaurant was a popular meeting spot for government officials and was run by an elderly widow named Barbara Suter.[iv] 
November 1812 seems to have been a particularly busy month for the old general: he attended Mrs. Madison’s famous drawing rooms on the 11th and 25th, dined with the president on the 17th, and on the 26th, at the invitation of Captain Stewart, dined onboard the USS Constitution with “the president, all the heads of the departments, the greater part of the members of the two houses of Congress, & many of the officers of the army and navy.”[v]
            1812 drew to a close but the war, contrary to the expectations of those who had advocated for it, dragged on.  Sevier remained busy attending the House during the day and visiting with political and military leaders in the evenings and on weekends – though he also found a fair amount of time for gambling and taking in shows at the theater.  From the beginning of the year until the end of the session, he attended a party at the French ambassador’s residence, dined at Mr. Villard’s at the Navy Yard, and called on the new Secretary of War (John Armstrong Jr.) and the Russian ambassador (Andrey Dashkov).  The Twelfth Congress concluded on March 3rd, 1813, but Sevier remained in D.C. for almost two more weeks.  On the fifth of March he made an appearance at a ball at the Russian embassy.  Given his personal affinity for France, his cordial relationship with the French ambassador, and the U.S.’s friendly relationship with France, it is interesting that Sevier was a guest of the Russian ambassador, since Napoleon had recently abandoned a disastrous invasion of the Russian empire.  Before setting out for home (which he did in company with the Russian secretary of legation), he also visited the president and dined at Mr. Villard’s at the Navy Yard again.[vi]
            A couple surviving documents from this period give some insight into the “Russia situation”.  In an address dated Feb. 27th, 1813, Sevier reports that the French have invaded Russia and have “desolated a large part of the Russian empire, and have destroyed a number of the finest cities in that or perhaps any other country… The Russians have defended themselves with great spirit and bravery, and the damage done on each side is incalculable.”  Whether he fails to condemn the French assault on Russian liberty because of his sympathies toward France or for the sake of diplomacy is unclear (though “a little bit of both” may be the answer).  In his denunciation of the U.K., however, he spares no hyperbole: “haughty, tyrannical, and malicious” Britannia is trying “by every foul art in her power to subjugate our free and independent nation, and hang round our necks the iron and despotic yoke of the British government.”  It is necessary, therefore, for the U.S. to “guard against the diabolical machinations of the malignant and embittered nation with whom we are at war.”[vii]  Sevier wrote a letter to his son the following month, relating the latest he had heard regarding British and American troop movements, and adding that the Russian emperor had offered, via the ambassador, Dashkov, to mediate between the two belligerents.[viii]
            Sevier scarcely had a month to rest at home before undertaking the approximately two-week journey back to the capitol.  On May 17th he arrived at Mrs. Suter’s and took up his lodgings; four days later he visited the president and Secretary of the Navy William Jones, who had replaced Paul Hamilton in January.  The first session of the 13th Congress opened on May 24th, 1813, and Sevier’s diary is once again filled with after-hours activity that appears to combine work and leisure.  He visited the Navy Yard no less than five times – three in the company of his landlady, Mrs. Suter.  He attended at least one Saturday meeting of the military committee, dined with the president in May and visited him again in July, went to two of Mrs. Madison’s levees, visited the secretary of war, spent one June evening with the French ambassador, and dined with the Russian ambassador the following week.[ix]
            He wrote to his son George frequently and appeared to grow increasingly homesick.  A letter dated June 11th, 1813 gives further updates on the war: the U.S. frigate Chesapeake, which he had previously heard was victorious over the HMS Shannon, is now understood to have been captured.  General Henry Dearborn and Commodore Isaac Chauncey have had several victories in the Great Lakes theatre, but in all the war is progressing slowly.  Sevier confides that he is “entirely sick at being so long from home”, and wishes he could return to his farm and stay there.[x] 
Two weeks later, in a letter written “late in the night”, he relates more news of battles and troop movements.  As for his own part in the war effort, he is deeply involved in “the tax business” and much of his time is consumed by the military committee: “there is [sic] only seven of us, and almost every thing relative to that all important subject, is laid before that committee, and to make arrangements for the defence of all our extensive frontiers on both sides, is an immense undertaking indeed.”  He tells George that he will try to have him and his regiment sent to the north, and again laments that he is “quite sick being so much time from home, and [were] I there again… I should be very unwilling to leave it,” adding in a postscript “much business and weary, &c.”[xi]
With the war still raging, the first congressional session adjourned on the second of August 1813; Sevier arrived in Knoxville at the end of that month.[xii]  Late that autumn, Sevier’s old archnemesis Andrew Jackson was busy battling the Creeks and trying to coordinate the various local militias of the southeast.  Jackson encountered particular trouble in east Tennessee, where the militia was commanded by John Cocke, a political ally of Sevier.[xiii]
 Representative Sevier left home for D.C. once more on Nov. 15th, arriving at Mrs. Suter’s on Sunday, Dec. 5th – just in time for the opening of the second session the following day.  Sevier remained in close contact with the president during this session, dining with him twice, visiting him at the beginning of January, and attending three of Mrs. Madison’s drawing rooms.  He called upon Secretary of State James Monroe and Secy. of the Navy William Jones in December, likely in his capacity as chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs.  In January he dined at the French ambassador’s residence again, and went to the Navy Yard to watch the launch of the USS Argus.  In April he dined with Secretary of the Treasury George W. Campbell, Secy. of War Armstrong, and Vice President Gerry.[xiv]
            The second session of 13th Congress ended on Apr. 14th, 1814, and Sevier set out for home on May 8th.[xv]  In the absence of Congress, however, things in Washington were about to heat up even more.  On August 24th, a British squadron under the command of Rear Admiral George Cockburn disembarked in the city and proceeded to burn its way toward the White House.  Sevier’s D.C. home, Mrs. Suter’s boardinghouse, stood on the route the British took from Capitol Hill to the president’s house.  With most of her tenants out of town for the congressional recess and her two sons off fighting, Mrs. Suter found herself in the uncomfortable position of inhabiting a nearly empty building while the town burned around her.  Late that evening, Major General Robert Ross of the British Army appeared at Mrs. Suter’s door and ordered dinner for himself and his staff.  Cockburn joined Ross and his men there a couple hours later, and the boardinghouse became Ross’s temporary headquarters.[xvi]
            Sevier’s friend Louis Sérurier, the French ambassador, was also stranded in the city as the British closed in.  He had recently taken up residence in the Octagon, “the most elegant private home in Washington,” which was located just west of the White House.  The home’s owners had offered to rent it to Sérurier in the hope that, in the event of a British invasion, the house would be spared on the grounds of its occupation by a foreign diplomat.  On the evening of the 24th, the ambassador hung a makeshift French tricolor on a pole outside the house; the strategy paid off and the house was spared.  Three and a half miles away, however, the Navy Yard, which Sevier had visited so often over the previous two years, was engulfed in flames.[xvii]
            On Sept. 17th, 1814, Sevier returned to the charred capitol for what would be his last session in Congress.  The House opened on Monday, Sept. 19th, and Sevier visited the president, the secretary of war, and the secretary of the treasury that Thursday.  He noted in his diary that the House met on a Saturday (Oct. 15th) to negotiate a bill for the removal of the seat of the government.  Dolley Madison refused to let the destruction of the White House hamper her social activities, and Sevier attended two of her “Wednesday Drawing Rooms.”[xviii] 
            In a long letter, written in January to his son George, who was in Knoxville, Sevier expresses more anxiety over the expenses of the war and his role in figuring out how to finance it.  “I fear we shall be much embarrassed respecting money to supply the army,” he writes, adding that the bank is in danger of failing.  He assures George that his regiment will most likely not be transferred.  Winter in the capitol was proving difficult: “I am still enjoying good health, but closely surrounded by sickness,” he writes.  There was snow on the ground and firewood was in short supply; he relates that the housekeeper does not know “where to get one single cord,” and he may have to borrow some coal from one of the ministers.[xix]
            He dined with the president at the end of January, and on Feb. 18th, 1815, Washington was illuminated to celebrate the end of the war; to this note, Sevier adds “cold day and a little sleet.”  With the war finally over, the 13th Congress ended on the third of March, 1815.  Two weeks later, on the 18th, he settled his account with Mrs. Suter and left her $12 in his debt.  The following day, he left D.C. by stagecoach, paying a fare of $5, and so completed his eventful service as a U.S. representative for the 12th and 13th Congresses. [xx]  Though taciturn on the House floor, Sevier’s diary, letters home, and other sources show that he was indeed devoted to his duties and actively involved in the committee he was assigned to.  He closely followed news of the war on all fronts and shared whatever information he received with his family back home.  He was a frequent guest at the White House, the French embassy, and the Navy Yard, and personally knew many cabinet members and top military officials.  In the twilight of his career, he was as close to the pulse of the nation as he had been so many years earlier during the first American war against the British.

                                                                                                Written by Jennifer Albertsen

Works cited
1 - Department of the Treasury website:                   
2 - Driver, Carl Samuel. John Sevier: Pioneer of the Old Southwest. Chapel Hill: University 
          of North Carolina Press, 1932.

3 – “John Sevier’s Diary”, in Heiskell, Samuel Gordon, Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee
          History, vol. 2. Nashville: Ambrose Printing Co., 1920.  (Includes reprint of entire  
          diary of John Sevier)
4 - Stagg, J.C.A. The War of 1812: Conflict for a Continent, Cambridge: Cambridge 
          University Press, 2012.
5 - Tennessee State Library & Archives website:
6 - Tennessee State Library & Archives, Nashville.
Address written in Washington, 27 Feb. 1813. Collection: TN Historical Society, Box:  
        correspondence by author, 1809 b2; Document: sl053 
Letter written to his son, Col. Sevier, 22 Mar. 1813. Collection: TN Historical Society, Box:  
        correspondence by author, 1809 b2; Document: sl052
7 - University of Tennessee Special Collections Library.
            Letter written to Col. George Washington Sevier, 11 Jun. 1813. Collection: John Sevier  
                     collection; Box: MS-1941 b1; Folder: 14; Document: sc101.
            Letter written to Col. George Washington Sevier, 27 Jun. 1813. Collection: John Sevier  
                     collection; Box: MS-1941 b1; Folder: 14; Document: sc102
            Letter written to Col. George Washington Sevier, 22 Jan. 1815. Collection: John Sevier  
                     collection; Box: MS-1941 b1; Folder: 15; Document: sc103
8 - Vogel, Steve. Through the Perilous Fight: Six Weeks That Saved the Nation. New York: 
          Random House, 2013.

[i] Driver 208
[ii] Tennessee State Library & Archives website:
[iii] Heiskell 599-600.  Ringgold was a Democratic-Republican representative from Maryland.
[iv] Heiskell 602; Vogel 177-78
[v] Heiskell 601-02
[vi] Ibid. 602-03
[vii] Sevier, John. Address written in Washington, 27 Feb. 1813. Held by Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville.
[viii] Sevier, John. Letter written to his son, Col. Sevier, 22 Mar. 1813.  Held by Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville
[ix] Heiskell 604-06
[x] Sevier, John. Letter written to Col. George Washington Sevier, 11 Jun. 1813. Held by Special Collections Library, University of Tennessee.
[xi] Sevier, John. Letter written to Col. George Washington Sevier, 27 Jun. 1813. Held by Special Collections Library, University of Tennessee.
[xii] Heiskell 606
[xiii] Stagg 107
[xiv] Heiskell 607-08.  Treasury Secretary Campbell, who was having a difficult time securing funding for the war, was also from Tennessee.
[xv] Heiskell 608
[xvi] Vogel 177-78, 185
[xvii] Ibid. 176.  The next month, Sérurier offered to vacate the house so that the now-homeless President & Mrs. Madison could move in – an offer the first family accepted. (Vogel 357)
[xviii] Heiskell 609-10
[xix] Sevier, John. Letter written to Col. George Washington Sevier, 22 Jan. 1815.  Held by Special Collections Library, University of Tennessee.
[xx] Heiskell 610-11

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

John Sevier: War Hawk

In preparation for the upcoming John Sevier Days: War Hawk and Hero, a War of 1812 special event, we have a two part blog series on the history of John Sevier's role during this oft forgotten war. Please plan to join us Saturday, September 23 from 9:00am to 4:00pm as we recognize John Sevier's achievements in the latter days of his life.

Part I
On a rainy Friday morning in November, after a long journey on horseback from his home in Tennessee, John Sevier took his seat in the House of Representatives.[1]  The first session of the 12th Congress of the United States had commenced four days earlier.[2]  From the outset, the most pressing issue to this Congress was the question of relations with the United Kingdom[3].For more than a decade, the U.K. had been fighting a desperate and extremely costly war against Napoleon, who had invaded and conquered half of Europe and was set on bringing the rest of the continent under the control of his new empire.  The Royal Navy, constantly in need of manpower and raw materials and not wanting neutral cargoes to aid their enemies, had been pressing foreign merchant seamen into service and confiscating cargoes from neutral ships.[4]  The American and British governments had imposed blockades on each other’s merchant ships, but, by early 1812, the president, James Madison, and many members of Congress felt that a more aggressive approach was needed. 
Madison, a Democratic-Republican from Virginia who harboured a lifelong hatred of the British, and the pro-war congressmen were also angry about the British blockade of French ports and the ports of France’s allies, as the blockade had been hindering the U.S.’s ability to trade with those countries.  Additionally, the pro-war faction accused Britain of helping Native Americans defend their lands against the encroachment of American settlers.  It was also no secret that an American invasion and conquest of Canada would be a goal of the war.[5]The congressional debates leading up to the declaration of war demonstrated that, almost half a century before the outbreak of the Civil War, the new nation was already seriously ideologically divided.  This was not a clear-cut division between North & South, but a distinction between northern & southern voting trends was apparent.  The division down party lines was even more evident.[6]  Bitter arguments ensued both within the chambers of Congress and without.  Some northern congressmen referred to certain of the war hawks as “the madmen from Tennessee and Kentucky”, while some of their southern counterparts accused New England Federalists of desiring reunion with Britain.[7]
Though Sevier almost never spoke on the House floor, his diary and other written records show him to have been a man who was actively involved in his work, dispatched frequent letters to keep the leaders of his home state up to date on the latest developments in Washington, and spent many of his evenings and weekends in the company of cabinet members, high-ranking military personnel, and fellow congressmen. From the time he took his seat in the House until June 1812 (when Congress declared war), he dined with President Madison on no less than three occasions and attended five of Mrs. Madison’s “Wednesday Drawing Rooms”.[8]He dined with House Speaker Henry Clay twice and, perhaps even more significantly, he dined with the French ambassador, Louis Sérurier, thrice, and even spent Christmas 1811 with him.  Sevier was of French descent himself and remained on friendly terms with Sérurier throughout the war.[9]
Sevier also spent a great deal of time with various military leaders, meeting with Abimael Nicoll, the Adjutant General of the Army, in January; dining with Paul Hamilton, Secretary of the Navy, twice; visiting the Navy Yard in April; dining twice with Secretary of State James Monroe; and visiting Secretary of War William Eustis in April.[10]  He wrote a letter to Tennessee governor William Blount on Nov. 11th, 1811, three days after taking his seat in the House, and again on Feb. 23rd, 1812.In a letter written to his son, Col. George Washington Sevier, on Jan. 13th, 1812, Sevier hints at the coming war, updating his son on measures passed in Congress to raise an army, and assuring him that his friends in Washington will “do everything” for his (George’s) promotion in the army. At the end of May 1812, he forwarded a communication from Joel Barlow, the American ambassador to France, to Governor Blount and the heads of the militias of several counties in Tennessee.[11]
By May, the question of repealing the embargo against the U.K. was a daily topic of debate in the House.  On May 6th, the representatives voted on whether to postpone considerations of petitions to end the embargo until the 4th of July.[12]Sevier did not speak during the debate, but another representative from Tennessee, John Rhea, spoke in favor of the embargo and of declaring war.  Sevier and Rhea both voted “yea”. On the following Monday, a representative from Pennsylvania presented petitions from his constituency to end the embargo.  Again the House voted on whether to consider the petitions or postpone deliberating them.  Once more, Sevier did not speak but voted in favor of postponement.[13]
On June 1st, 1812, Madison sent a secret message to both houses of Congress, instructing them to declare war on the U.K.  The doors of the House were closed and the message read.  For the next three days, the House met behind closed doors, under an official injunction of secrecy, and passed the war resolution on the 4th of June with Sevier, of course, voting in favor.  The Senate was even more divided than the House on the matter and almost did not pass the bill.  The “yeas” in the Senate eventually prevailed on June 17th, and the president signed the war declaration the following day.  In both houses, the decision to declare war was the closest and most contested war vote in American history.[14]

Works Cited

1 - Belt, Gordon T. John Sevier: Tennessee’s First Hero. Charleston SC: The History Press,

2 - Borneman, Walter R. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. New York: HarperCollins
Publishers, 2004.

3 - Colley, Linda. Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707-1837. Second edition. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2005.

4 - Driver, Carl Samuel. John Sevier: Pioneer of the Old Southwest. Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 1932.

5 –“John Sevier’s Diary”, in Heiskell, Samuel Gordon,Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee
History, vol. 2. Nashville: Ambrose Printing Co., 1920. (Includes reprint of entire
diary of John Sevier)

6 - Sevier, Cora Bales. Sevier Family History: With Collected Letters of Gen. John Sevier, First Governor of Tennessee. Washington: N.S. Madden, 1961.
7 - Stagg, J.C.A. The War of 1812: Conflict for a Continent, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2012.

8 - Twelfth Congress, first session. The Debates & Proceedings of the Congress of the
United States. Washington: Gales & Seaton, 1853.

9 - U.S. House of Representatives Offices of the Historian, Art & Archives, & Clerk. “History, Art & Archives: People Search & Session Dates” 2017. United States House of Representatives. Accessed 5 September 2017. <>; <>
10 - Vogel, Steve. Through the Perilous Fight: Six Weeks That Saved the Nation. New York:
Random House, 2013.

[1] Heiskell 592
[3] The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland had been formed by an Act of Parliament on January 1st, 1801.  Great Britain was formed by the union of England and Wales with Scotland in 1707 (England and Wales having been joined since 1536). (Colley 11, 322)  During the debates in the House, the representatives seemed only to refer to the country as “Britain” or “Great Britain” and never “the United Kingdom”.  However, the language of Madison’s proclamation of June 19th, 1812, does employ the title “the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland & the dependencies thereof.” (Stagg 47)
[4] Vogel 17-18; Colley 150; Stagg 28-29.  The practice of impressment, or forcing civilians into military service, was not new.  The Royal Navy had used press gangs to take men since at least the mid-18th century, and had been “impressing” seamen from various other countries before it began seizing men from American ships. (Colley 65; Stagg 28)
[5]Borneman 57-59; Stagg 18-22; Vogel 17-18
[6] The representatives from states that would later join the Confederacy (GA, NC, SC, TN & VA) voted decisively for war, with 34 yeas + 8 nays (AL, AR, FL, LA, MS & TX were not yet states as of 1812).  The representatives from states that would remain with the Union were more ideologically & politically diverse, with 45 voting pro-war vs. 41 voting against (though if we include the Civil War border states of MD & KY, which were officially part of the Union but were, in practice, largely pro-Confederacy, as part of the southern states’ tally, the North/South divide is even clearer: 45 yeas + 11 nays from the South vs. 34 yeas + 38 nays from the North.  The only major anomaly in this pattern was PA, which had more Representatives in the House than any other state, save VA: 16 of PA’s 18 Representatives voted for war.  In party terms, every single Federalist in the House voted against the war resolution, while 15 Democratic-Republicans voted nay and 79 voted yea. (12th Congress, 1632-38; Vogel 19; U.S. HoROffices of the Historian, Art & Archives, & Clerk people search)
[7]Sevier, Cora 183
[8] Heiskell 592-99; Belt 146.  Congressmen, businessmen, federal officials, and diplomats attended Mrs. Madison’s weekly open houses.  The President was usually present, sitting “unobtrusively in a corner” and conversing with a small group. (Vogel 112)
[9] Heiskell 509, 592-99
[10]Ibid. 592-99.  Monroe, like the president, was a Democratic-Republican from Virginia.
[11] Ibid. 592, 596, 598; Sevier, Cora 183
[12] As noted by several representatives, postponement of consideration of the petitions until the end of the congressional session effectively meant quashing them.
[13] Twelfth Congress, first session 1379-1414, 1416-19
[14] Twelfth Congress, first session 1478-82, 1587-88, 1624-29, 1632-38; Borneman 51; Stagg 19-22, 45-47; Vogel 19